A dissertation is the most important writing you will do in your study program. It is not a wonder therefore, that it can seem like an overwhelming task to undertake. To make it less daunting and more easily tackled, make a plan that will keep it manageable. This will help you in selecting the area of interest, choosing an approach and research title, making an outline and finding the sources you need. While there is a basic and generally accepted structure for a dissertation, the structure may differ from one department or university to another hence you should always check the guidelines provided to ensure your dissertation is structured as per the instructions. However, the best structure for a dissertation includes planning for a word limit and chapter arrangement that will best suit the topic. Nevertheless, the dissertation is divided into preliminary pages and the body. The latter has various chapters each tacking a particular issue.
The Preliminary Pages
These include the title page, abstract, acknowledgment, declaration of originality, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, definitions and list of any accompanying material. The title is particular to the area of interest and the abstract a summary of your dissertation. The acknowledgement gives credit to the people who have specially helped you in your dissertation. On the other hand, the content pages indicate the contents, figures, and tables among others included in your final paper.
This consists of chapters such as the introduction chapter, literature review, research methodology, results or findings, analysis and discussion, conclusions, recommendations, references, and appendices.
- The introduction is a presentation of the research problem and justification as well as providing a brief outline of your work and laying the theoretical framework for your research.
- The literature review on the other hand, is a way of examining existing work and showing the gaps that your research seeks to fill or problems it resolves.
- Next is the research methodology which is an account and description of the methods you will use to conduct the research. These methods should be clearly stated such that future replications of your research can be possible.
- Once you carry out your research the findings, you get a dedicated chapter of their own. These clearly answer the main as well as specific objectives and question that you thesis posed.
- After findings, you are required to discuss and analyze your findings in a way that validates the usefulness of your research. Indeed, in analysis and discussion, always refer to your suppositions and also state any additions made that you had not outlined earlier.
- Finally, draw your conclusions highlighting all the main points of your research and recommend any future work. Add a reference and appendix, and you are good to go!
A flawed literature review could derail your thesis/dissertation. It is a demonstration of your understanding of previous research, its limitations as well as your field of study. A literature review is usually dismissed when it actually shows important facts related to your topic and is a critical analysis of works that justify what is done or known which in turn determines the value of your research. Your research topic is deemed justifiable or credible if it either resolves conflict among previous works or identifies better/new methods to interpret gaps in previous research. This makes a literature review a critical point in your PhD research proposal.
How to Prepare Before Writing a Literature Review
- Seek clarification concerning the number of sources you require, types of sources and whether to summarize, synthesize, evaluate or critique your sources.
- Find literature review examples that are related to your research topic to help you familiarize with themes and structure that you may want to use for your own review.
- Limit the scope of the literature you want to review to gain a deeper understanding and survey of your area of interest.
- Look for recent or current sources for your review to avoid research duplication. Choose sources based on author’s credentials, neutrality, credibility and value to your own research.
- Read your source while making critical notes and find a focus upon which you can base the structure of your literature review as related to your PhD proposal.
Writing the Review
Your review should consist of an introduction which has a main theme, a body in which you discuss your sources and a conclusion which is a summary and recommendations based on your discussions in the body. The review there should clearly show major achievements with regard to the topic chosen, the debate areas and research questions. Follow the following steps to write a good literature review:
- Tips to analyzing literature effectively
- Establish early on the importance of the topic you have settled on for your research proposal.
- Describe the studies and time frame of the topic involved.
- Identify any landmark studies.
- Cite all specific references.
- State your point of view and ensure the review is coherent in its flow of argument.
- Choose a way to organize your review such as by publication chronology, trend such as detailing the history of a certain medical practice, theme/issue affecting the topic, researcher’s methodologies or by current information.
- Use evidence in making your point and showing the validity of your arguments.
- Select the most important themes or points in each source that affect your research.
- Relate each source’s significance to your topic by summarizing and synthesizing them.
- Present ideas while keeping your voice and avoiding plagiarism.
- Revise your draft until you get a clean copy that presents your arguments coherently while following the outline and rules as per your discipline’s requirements.
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https://projectsdeal.co.uk is developing an app for auto Harvard Style referencing. When writing research proposal, thesis or essay, you need to reference your work to ensure that you avoid accusations of plagiarism. You, therefore, need to write an extensive list of materials you referred to in your essay. This is called a reference or a bibliography and it serves as an acknowledgment and accreditation for sources that have helped you come up with an original research study. However, since you just can’t write a reference haphazardly, you have to follow a chronological structure widely accepted in the academic field and specified by your discipline. This is called a referencing style. There are many referencing styles used of which the Author-title and Author-date are the most popular in dissertations. Harvard referencing style is a popular style and if chosen should be used accurately as well as consistently throughout your dissertation. There are two types of referencing in your dissertation:
- In-text citations where you cite your sources in the main body of your thesis.
- End-text-citations or Reference list which involves dedicating a section at the end of your dissertation to list all your sources.
General Rules of the Harvard Referencing Style
- In-text citations are within the text and not given as footnotes. These citations list the author’s name, year of publication and pages used, all enclosed in brackets.
- The thesis or dissertation should have a bibliography at the end that lists all works referred to in your thesis. This list of references is organized alphabetically by author. It is also organized chronologically in cases where there are two or more works written by the same author.
- For each source, the reference starts by the author’s surname, and then their first name using initials. The year of publication in brackets follows.
- When referencing book sources written by more than three authors, the name of the first is given followed by ‘et al’. After the title information ends with a period, the city of publication followed by publisher and number of pages are given.
- Book titles are in italics while all article titles follow a regular style of writing and are placed in quotation marks. Where the article is published in a book or journal, the titles of these sources are written in italics. However, if the article is from a digital source, both the web address, as well as the date when the article is accessed (in square brackets), must be given.
- Whenever a web page is used as a source, the title should be in italics and if affiliated with an institution, the name of the institution linked should be given. Furthermore, the web address as well as date of access should also be given.
- Finally, a hanging indent is used for the entire list of sources.
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One of the most important PhD papers that you will right during your doctoral studies is a PhD research proposal. This proposes the specific research topic that you want to examine for your thesis. A thesis is part of your study program and determines its successful conclusion as well as helps you gain a more rewarding career. To write a PhD proposal, you need to choose your dissertation topic which you will justify in the proposal showing why it is valid and important to research about it. The proposal should be persuasive, focused and well-researched and written. How does it benefit your area of interest? As with all other types of papers involved in studies, a PhD proposal has a general accepted structure that should be confirmed with your departments to see if there are any variations. The segments include:
- Title Page
This includes the research title, name of PhD candidate, and department or university to which the proposal will be submitted.
This is a brief summary of the topic aims, methods and relevance of your proposed research study.
This gives an overview of the research problem and brief theoretical background information on the topic. It also presents a justification of the problem chosen by explaining the need for research.
- Research questions and objectives
This part indicates the questions whose answers the proposed research will seek as well as stating the goals of the PhD study.
- Literature Review
It summarizes previous works relevant to your research topic and identifies the gaps, debates, arguments and contradictions that exist among these studies. These serve as evidence to support the need for the proposed PhD research.
This section details the methods you will use to carry out the research. While not set in stone as your dissertation may evolve to include better methods, it nonetheless provides the information on data collection methods, sources and analysis techniques. It also includes participants of your research and any limitations and how you will minimize them.
- Ethical Considerations
Ethics are mainly addressed with regard to data collection. You should, therefore, mention any ethical issues concerned with your research as well as rights of participants.
- Expected Results
You may provide a brief account of what you expect though this is not mandatory.
- Project Time Plan
It contains a detailed, realistic plan for the completion of your proposed research. You can also include a budget, especially when requesting for funding for your dissertation.
This reaffirms the significance of the proposed research in your discipline and area of interest.
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